the forces of the new emperor effectively took the measure of Isaurian resistance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2013. Leo III the Isaurian's son and successor, Constantine V, won noteworthy victories in northern Syria and also thoroughly undermined Bulgarian strength. Historical Dictionary of Byzantium. 284 Following the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II took the title " Kaysar-i Rm " (the Ottoman Turkish equivalent of Caesar of Rome since he was determined to make the Ottoman Empire the heir of the Eastern Roman. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages. Indeed, early on in the life of the Roman Empire, Greek had become the common language of the Church, the language of scholarship and the arts, and, to a large degree, the lingua franca for trade between provinces and with other nations.
42 One of the most important figures of late antiquity and possibly the last Roman emperor to speak Latin as a first language, 43 Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch, marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". However, she refused to allow religious toleration and contemporary travellers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. The Amazing Ancient World - Premier Ancient Civilization Internet Book ACT. 280 The state strictly controlled both the internal and the international trade, and retained the monopoly of issuing coinage, maintaining a durable and flexible monetary system adaptable to trade needs. The Lost World of Byzantium. Includes links to numerous electronic texts. The American Journal of Philology.
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