Arbeit. It can be said that the focus group is one of the key instruments for the creation of a "communicative space" (see Subsection.2 above). 31 So-called "early" forms of participation, such as the briefing of professional researchers by those who are affected by the problem under study, can, at most, be described as preparatory joint activities that may facilitate participation in the research project at a later date. Because of the individuality and self-determination of the research partners in the participatory research process, these strategies cannot be canonized in the form of a single, cohesive methodological approach, such as, for example, the narrative interview or qualitative content analysis. Such a procedure is presented in the present special issue.
Goeke and kubanski (2012) point out that, besides paying an independence-enhancing research fee, the willingness of persons with disabilities to participate in research projects can be increased by the provision of assistance on site, and barrier-free access. They distinguish three phases in the process of participatory research: the "inclusion phase the "control phase and the "intimacy phase." In each phase, three problem areas"emotional issues "task issues and "organizational issues"must be addressed. For example, Mccartan. The Education Dissertation A Guide for Practitioner Scholars. 49-72; Butin, Dan. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6(1 Art. 19 The basic dilemma revealed here is that these marginalized communities are in a very poor position world bank policy research working paper series to participate in participatory research projects, or to initiate such a project themselves. Co-operative inquiry: Research into the human condition.